Everything You Wanted to Know About Ropesby Stefan Kruger and Alan James Mar/2007
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- What is the difference between 'single', 'half', 'double' and 'twin' ropes?
- How long a rope do I need?
- Someone offered to sell me a second-hand rope/sling/rack. Should I buy?
- When should a rope be retired?
- What is a 'fall factor'?
- My rope is dirty. How do I go about washing it?
- How do I mark the middle of my rope?
© UKC articles
What is the difference between 'single', 'half', 'double' and 'twin' ropes?
A: Single and double are fairly obvious, half is a rope that needs to be used in a pair, twin refers to a rope designed for slightly different useage in a twin rope system.
Single rope is exactly that, a rope that you use on its own. It is most commonly used for sport climbing or short pitches on smaller crags when trad climbing. A thicker rope is used, usually 10mm up to 11mm thick. This is indicated by the manufacturer by using a '1' in a circle on the manufacturer's information.
A half rope is one which is designed only to be used in a pair when climbing using double ropes. A half rope is usually 8mm to 9mm thick and is indicated by a '1/2' in a circle on the manufacturer's information.
Double rope climbing tends to be used on traditonal routes. The main advantage of a double rope set-up is that it can reduce rope-drag, if used competently. On the other hand, having to deal with two ropes require more sophisticated belaying skills, plus that if you get it wrong when clipping ropes you can really end up in a messy tangle. Double ropes are also (for obvious reasons) intrinsically more secure in the (unlikely) event of a rope actually breaking.
Twin rope refers to a rope which is specifically designed to be used in a pair where the ropes are treated as one strand and both clipped into all the protection on the route, be it hand-placed or bolts. The benefit of a twin rope system is that it offers the lightest option when weight is of paramount importance in mountaineering and big wall environments. They also of a greater level of safety in situations where a rope may be cut in a fall. However, twin ropes aren't popular since they are awkward to use and less versatile than a 1/2 rope system. A twin rope is indicated by a circle with two overlapping smaller circles inside it.
A: Usually, as long as you can afford.
For double ropes 50m will probably be enough for most pitches and abseils. Find out what your regular climbing partner has though since there is nothing worse than climbing on double ropes of different lengths.
For single rope climbing, especially sport climbing where you have to lower off, then buy a long rope. Don't even consider anything less than 60m and try to get 70m if you can afford it. This will enable you to safely lower from all but the very longest sport routes. Anything shorter can leave you dangling and has also frequently been the cause of lowering accidents. The added bonus of long ropes is you can trim the ends off as they get older in order to prolong the life.
Someone offered to sell me a second-hand rope. Should I buy?
A: In general, probably not.
Two reasons: firstly, unless you know the seller well, it can be difficult to assess what sort of action the gear has seen. The rope you're considering might have held several factor 2 falls. Don't skimp on safety. Secondly, can you be sure that the kit wasn't stolen from someone's car at the bottom of Stanage?
When should a rope be retired?
A: Tough call.
A rope should be retired if it is damaged, if it has held a big fall, or if it has seen active duty for a prolonged time. Consult the rope manufacturer's technical documentation to find out what the expected life-span is. If the core is visible anywhere along the length then retire immediately. Also retire if it's been subjected to aggressive chemicals, e.g car battery acid or chlorine.
If you are unsure then inspect your rope; how does it feel when unweighted and weighted? Feel for lumps and kinks, 'mushy' soft spots of the core. If it seems to be losing its elasticity and becoming 'wire-like' then it will probably still be strong enough but it will become more and more dificult to climb with. Another sign of an old rope is 'ovaling' where the rope becomes oval-shaped when weighted. On the other hand a slightly furry sheath is probably nothing to worry about.
If your rope becomes damaged near one end then you can always salvage the rest of the rope and use it for the climbing wall or routes on shorter crags.
What is a 'fall factor?
A: A (crude) measure of the stress a given fall puts on the rope (or on the climber, if you like).
See full article here.
My rope is dirty. How do I go about washing it?
How do I mark the middle of my rope?
A: Probably safest using specialist marker pens.
The middle mark is essential when sport climbing and lowering-off a pitch. It is also a useful indicator when for coiling the rope, and to serve as a remider for the belayer when half the rope is fed out. Most ropes come with a middle marker in place; some flash ropes even change colour or sheath braiding pattern. However, some ropes at the budget end sometimes come without a middle marker, and the middle mark also tends to disappear over time on many ropes.
It's tempting to just take a marker pen and ink in the centre, but chemicals found in normal marker pens can potentially damage the kernel nylon fibres. Beal sell a rope-friendly marker pen specifically designed for this purpose.
Many people simply wrap some finger tape around the centre. This is a somewhat temporary solution - belay devices tend to strip off or move this after a while, but is perfectly adequate, especially if you mainly climb pitches shorter than half the rope.
How do I cut a rope?
A: Use any old knife
Get hold of any old knife, it doesn't need to be a sharp one. Heat it up on your gas cooker until it is glowing red then quickly slice through the rope over a block of wood. Use the hot knife to seal the end to avoid any further fraying.
Q: What is impact force?
A: Rope manufacturers often quote an "impact force" for their ropes. This is the force transmitted to the system when taking a UIAA standard fall. Thus in general, a lower value is better as it will result in less force being placed upon the piece of gear taking the fall, increasing the likelihood of that gear holding.
Q: What does the rated number of falls mean?
A: Rope manufacturers often quote an maximum number of falls for their ropes. This is the minimum number of standard UIAA falls a rope survived during laboratory test conditions. For twin ropes, both ropes are tested together and the number of falls quoted is how many both ropes survived.
Q: What is a UIAA standard fall?
A: A 4.6m fall with 2.6m of rope paid out (fall factor of 1.77) and an 80Kg load. When testing twin ropes, both ropes are tested together. However for half-ropes, only one half-rope is tested.
- Learning the ropes by Frank Bennett (BMC) - PDF download
- Learning the ropes by John Walter
- Checking PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) by Petzl
- Rope Types by Beal
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