Are you Ready for a Sea Cliff Adventure? Article

© Stu McInnes

For most people, their introduction to climbing comes in the form of visits to a local indoor wall, before venturing out onto single pitch crags such as Stanage, where you can park your car, saunter the 5 minutes up to the crag (with full view of it at all time), peruse the guide book, do a route and casually wander round back to the bottom. Your weather worries are purely if the rock is dry or not.

Carreg y Barcud, one of the amazing sea-cliffs in Pembrokeshire - accessible by abseil!
© Stu McInnes

It's amazing, pure joy, and you can get so much done in a day - but what if you fancy having a go at some sea-cliff climbing? It's quite a big step up, with a whole plethora of new skills needing to be learnt, practised and perfected in order to have a safe, productive day out. Even the smaller 'single pitch' sea-cliffs can catch the unwary out.

But given the right conditions, the right knowledge, the correct equipment and skill set, some of the best, most rewarding days of your climbing lives can be had on a sea-cliff.

In this article, I'm going to try and give a run down of the new skills you need to develop and the things you need to be aware of and take into account on them there cliffs...

Before you go.....
Tides, swell, bird bans, bombs, spring, neaps....

You might have come across some of these things before, certainly bird bans are rife on the crags, but nesting sea birds mean many crags are out of bounds at certain times of year. This one's simple, get on the BMC's amazing RAD (regional access database) and check out where you want to head. The same goes for Military firing ranges, especially in Pembrokeshire. Some are accessible outside of firing times, some you have to have been to a Range Briefing to be able to enter. Follow the RAD and the BMC advice, plus local signs at the car-parks and cliffs themselves, we don't want to damage our access...


Tides and the whole sea side of things, aren't so easy to get your head around....

The level of the sea goes up and down (tides), there's a low tide, then 6 hours later there is a high tide. Repeat. The tides progress a little each day, so the times change. Dorset has funny tides, so is an exception to this rule. I'll tell you where to find out this info in a bit.

Every 2 weeks a full moon brings us Spring tides, and the range (difference between high and low) is at it's greatest, in some areas this might be nine metres difference, I still can't comprehend how the moon does this! When we are not on springs, the tidal range is smaller, where the range is smallest we are on Neap tides. Having a knowledge of this is of vital importance if you're going Deep Water Soloing, but to trad climbers it tells us if we can access the routes without having a hanging belay, or where to abseil into, and where the water level will be in relation to our route!

Even on a nice day the sea can be big!
© Stu McInnes

It's useful to note, but I don't want to lose you here with all this talk of water when we want to go climbing, that the speed the tide comes in and goes out varies as to what stage it's at. This is important as it tells us "if I belay here now how long have I got till I get wet?!" This is called the rule of twelfths. I wont go into much detail, Google it, but basically there is a lull in speed of the water going in or out in the couple of hours around the peak of high and low tides, and it comes in quicker outside of that. Sometimes disturbingly quick! At some point in your sea-cliff climbing career you WILL get wet due to this!

The distance between the top of each wave's high point is called the Wave Period, it's measured in seconds, and can be low ie- four seconds, or large, even up to twenty seconds or more. The longer the period, the more power in the waves, hence why a 3ft wave on 4 seconds is a very different beast to a 3ft wave on 18 seconds... Being aware of this can again, help you avoid a soaking! Even those belay ledges 30ft up a cliff aren't immune to getting wet!


Swell, sometimes it's flat as a pancake, but at times the sea around our small island can produce some big old waves... Having a squint at the predicted swell height (or even a relevant surf web-cam) can save you from getting a soaking, or finding the rock wet even though it hasn't rained...

Both the tides and the swell can be found on Magic Seaweed, a surf forecast website ñ just find the nearest most relevant surf spot for the crag you want to visit, some adjustments may need to be made to get exactly the right tide times for your crag if it's some distance from the surf spot. Tide tables can be found on the web or bought locally.

Now then, lets get to the crag....

1. Where is this cliff anyway?!
Well that's the start of it, you cant walk to the bottom of the crag (OK sometimes you can..) so you can't see it until you're on it. This means reading and interpreting the guidebook to find your route, or abseil line, is a fundamental skill. Guidebooks are getting better and better, but I have, on more than one occasion, wandered round for hours without successfully finding the place I want to be! So, take your time, analyse the book, tick off features as you go, perhaps look at the map and grid reference. And if you get lost or go the wrong way, don't worry ñ we've all been there!

Some incredible climbs in incredible places await!
© Stu McInnes

2. So I've found the cliff - what now?
In the ideal world, there would be an easy walk or scramble down, but that's no fun now, so let's look at how to use the rope to safeguard our descent. To abseil down would be the norm, leaving a fixed static rope down the 'normal' descent, these are usually indicated in the guide.

We tend to use static rope as it has less stretch than a lead rope, thus reducing the chance of it rubbing over edges. Using a rope protector and some good ol' anchors is a wise choice. There may however be occasions when you have nothing but a rusty old stake†in the ground as an anchor, so developing your own sound judgement is crucial.
What device you use to abseil down is up to you, but it's imperative that you use a prussic to back yourself up. Don't forget that all important knot in the end of the rope so you avoid the embarrassing situation of abseiling off the end of your rope, I find a well tightened overhand on a bight works well.

Caerfai, as easy an introduction to sea-cliffs as you're likely to get...
© Stu McInnes

Only drop down the length of rope you need to get to the bottom to avoid tangles, but if you cannot see the bottom you may need to take the whole length down, be real careful firstly that no-one is down there, giving a loud call of "below" if you're going to chuck it, better yet, abseil down with the rope and drop it down as you go. If you stop to untangle the rope, or check out that crucial gear placement, be sure to tie a quick thumb knot in the rope below your prussic, as your hands free back up.

With the excess rope at the bottom make sure it's nice and neat and will pull up from the top cleanly and not get caught. Be aware of the sea coming in and washing the rope away, if the tide is threatening, lay it on a ledge further up the cliff.

We leave the rope in-place should we need to escape back up it, if we couldn't climb out for instance, so I often take a gri-gri and jumar with me and leave it on the end of the rope. This will make your life infinitely easier should you need to ascend back up that rope. Learn how to use them properly, but also how to get back up safely with just a couple of prussics... This is a very important skill, if in any doubt about this or other skills mentioned here - book yourself onto a course run by a member of the AMI.

Often you might abseil down and there is no ledge to stand around on, the safest thing to do is to stay on the abseil rope until you've made a belay (remember that back up thumb knot below your prussic if you go 'hands free'). Consider using the abseil line within the belay, just make sure your mate can still get down it and to your belay.

3. Let's get climbing!
Waves thundering in and booming noise, or tranquil and azure with all sorts of marine life bobbing around, you can have very different experiences depending on the sea state and weather, but every experience will stick far more rigidly in your mind than any trip to Stanage! A few words of warning here:

- Consider using a bandoleer if you're moving around the bottom un-roped, if you fall in to the sea with all the metal gear on your harness you will drown, at least you can whip off a bandoleer easier.
- If un-roped at the bottom, be very aware what the sea is doing, don't keep your back to the waves the whole time. The unwary have been caught out by random large waves never to be seen again.
- When seconding, leave all the gear clipped on until it's out the rock before putting it on your harness, kit dropped into the sea never to be found again can prove a costly day! If you can clip it onto your harness before taking it off the rope even better!
- Beware of birds! We've mentioned bird bans, but even cliffs outside of these can have birds on. Hands in guano, projectile vomiting and dive bombing are all things you can look forward to...
- During seal pupping season it's best to stay away from certain areas, or at least make no noise, check locally where and when this is.
- Any fixed gear you come across (slings, pegs, old bolts and assorted ironmongery) will have been affected by the salt in the air, and corrodes much quicker than on an inland crag, so treat all with great respect and don't assume it'll hold a fall.
- As you can't just nip to your bags, it's worth having some essentials in pockets, maybe some food and a phone, certainly if you're on a multi-pitch, so you can raise the alarm if needed. People have been known to spend entire nights on sea cliffs because no-one knew they were there and in trouble!

Sitting Bull Buttress in Pembrokeshire - note the height the water will be at high tide.
© Stu McInnes

What if?

You're on a big sea cliff remember? If you can't get up the route you can't just lower to the ground and walk away...Hopefully you've left your abseil rope in place and you know how to safely get back up it with your tail between your legs? What if your mate falls off and hurts themselves, or if the tide starts coming in quick and you get cut off?

Sea cliff climbing is probably, at least in part, so rewarding due to the increase in seriousness of the situation you're in. The "out there" feeling... But these climbs demand that you develop your skill set to be able to deal with certain situations should things go awry. Skills best learnt under the watchful eye of an Instructor, as there is very real scope to mess things up and hurt yourself.

Can you:Prussik up a rope? Tie off your belay plate? Escape the system? Hoist a stuck climber? Ascend and descend past a knot? Lower past a knot? - There are just a few of the important skills to learn. Be honest with yourself and up-skill...

Many cliffs are less serious, so pick you first forays wisely and you'll be OK, you'll have an unforgettable time and climb some truly amazing routes. Who knows, you might even see a pod of dolphins bobbing along as you're belaying your mate with the sun shining in your face...

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